FUZZY LOGIC - AN INTRODUCTION
by Steven D. Kaehler
This is the second in a series of six articles intended to share information and experience in the realm of fuzzy logic (FL) and its application. This article will continue the introduction with a more detailed look at how one might use FL. A simple implementation will be explained in detail beginning in the next article. Accompanying outside references are included for interested readers.
In the last article, FL was introduced and the thrust of this article series presented. The origin of FL was shared and an introduction to some of the basic concepts of FL was presented. We will now look a little deeper.
WHY USE FL?
FL offers several unique features that make it a particularly good choice for many control problems.
1) It is inherently robust since it does not require precise, noise-free inputs and can be programmed to fail safely if a feedback sensor quits or is destroyed. The output control is a smooth control function despite a wide range of input variations.
2) Since the FL controller processes user-defined rules governing the target control system, it can be modified and tweaked easily to improve or drastically alter system performance. New sensors can easily be incorporated into the system simply by generating appropriate governing rules.
3) FL is not limited to a few feedback inputs and one or two control outputs, nor is it necessary to measure or compute rate-of-change parameters in order for it to be implemented. Any sensor data that provides some indication of a system's actions and reactions is sufficient. This allows the sensors to be inexpensive and imprecise thus keeping the overall system cost and complexity low.
4) Because of the rule-based operation, any reasonable number of inputs can be processed (1-8 or more) and numerous outputs (1-4 or more) generated, although defining the rulebase quickly becomes complex if too many inputs and outputs are chosen for a single implementation since rules defining their interrelations must also be defined. It would be better to break the control system into smaller chunks and use several smaller FL controllers distributed on the system, each with more limited responsibilities.
5) FL can control nonlinear systems that would be difficult or impossible to model mathematically. This opens doors for control systems that would normally be deemed unfeasible for automation.
HOW IS FL USED?
1) Define the control objectives and criteria: What am I trying to control? What do I have to do to control the system? What kind of response do I need? What are the possible (probable) system failure modes?
2) Determine the input and output relationships and choose a minimum number of variables for input to the FL engine (typically error and rate-of-change-of-error).
3) Using the rule-based structure of FL, break the control problem down into a series of IF X AND Y THEN Z rules that define the desired system output response for given system input conditions. The number and complexity of rules depends on the number of input parameters that are to be processed and the number fuzzy variables associated with each parameter. If possible, use at least one variable and its time derivative. Although it is possible to use a single, instantaneous error parameter without knowing its rate of change, this cripples the system's ability to minimize overshoot for a step inputs.
4) Create FL membership functions that define the meaning (values) of Input/Output terms used in the rules.
5) Create the necessary pre- and post-processing FL routines if implementing in S/W, otherwise program the rules into the FL H/W engine.
6) Test the system, evaluate the results, tune the rules and membership functions, and retest until satisfactory results are obtained.
In 1973, Professor Lotfi Zadeh proposed the concept of linguistic or "fuzzy" variables. Think of them as linguistic objects or words, rather than numbers. The sensor input is a noun, e.g. "temperature", "displacement", "velocity", "flow", "pressure", etc. Since error is just the difference, it can be thought of the same way. The fuzzy variables themselves are adjectives that modify the variable (e.g. "large positive" error, "small positive" error ,"zero" error, "small negative" error, and "large negative" error). As a minimum, one could simply have "positive", "zero", and "negative" variables for each of the parameters. Additional ranges such as "very large" and "very small" could also be added to extend the responsiveness to exceptional or very nonlinear conditions, but aren't necessary in a basic system.
FL does not require precise inputs, is inherently robust, and can process any reasonable number of inputs but system complexity increases rapidly with more inputs and outputs. Distributed processors would probably be easier to implement. Simple, plain-language IF X AND Y THEN Z rules are used to describe the desired system response in terms of linguistic variables rather than mathematical formulas. The number of these is dependent on the number of inputs, outputs, and the designer's control response goals.
 "Clear Thinking on Fuzzy Logic" by L.A. Bernardinis (Machine Design, April 23, 1993).
 "Fuzzy Fundamentals" by E. Cox (IEEE Spectrum, October 1992, pp. 58-61).
 "Fuzzy Logic in Control Systems" by C.C. Lee (IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1990, pp. 404-35).
 "Fuzzy Sets" by Ivars Peterson (Science News, Vol. 144, July 24, 1993, pp. 55).
File: FL_PART2.HTM 2-13-98